The dictionary meaning of ‘Brexit’ is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Kingdom. It is an abbreviation for the term ‘British Exit’ similar to ‘Grexit’ that was used many years ago to refer to the possibility of Greece leaving Eurozone. Brexit is the UK’s exit from the European Union. It follows a referendum result on 23 June 2016, in which a majority of those that were 52% voted to leave and remaining that is, 48% voted to remain with European Union. The British government formally announced the country’s withdrawal in March 2017, beginning the Brexit process, the withdrawal was delayed by an unprecedented deadlock in the UK parliament after the general elections which were held in June 2017 resulted in an unexpected hung parliament. Followed by the subsequent general election in December 2019, which ended the deadlock, the UK parliament finally ratified the withdrawal agreement and the UK left the European Union.
This began a transition period that is set to end on 31st December 2020, during which the UK and European Union negotiating their future relationship. During this period, it does not have any policies, so still have to abide by European Union rules. The UK must now negotiate its entire relationship with the European Union, its largest trading partner by January 1 2021, or get an intension by July 1 2020, if it does not, then it will suddenly fall out of the EU single market and customs union. The scenario called a “no-deal” Brexit, would likely be significantly damaging to the UK economy.
Brexit is the UK’s biggest peacetime government project. It means possible domestic economic reconfiguration, risks creating further social divisions as well as requiring political readjustments on relationships between the executive and the parliament. There are also implications on the devolved settlement between the UK as a whole and at least two of the four constituent UK nations. The UK government has stated aim is to take the UK out of the world’s largest single market and the world’s largest custom union (both by GDP and participating countries). The UK government intends to have all alternative trading, regulatory, legal, supporting technological arrangements in place, and functioning by 31 December 2020. While the UK intends to leave the EU on 29 March 2019, there will be replacement temporary transition arrangements, which create this 31 December 2020 deadline. Meanwhile, the UK government are involved in rounds of negotiations with the rest of the EU. Negotiations will contributor to an international financial statement, new legal relationships, an international Brexit withdrawal treaty, and future trade deals.
The history of the UK is very interesting. It is formed with four countries and altogether known as United Kingdom Union. They are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. These countries are independent itself and at the same time have to look at the UK and to comply with the rules made thereunder. The UK’s prime minister’s website uses the phrase “countries within a country.” How this union formed and how it has collaborated with the European Union is a story that started long ago. European Union is a political and economic union of 27 member states located primarily in Europe with an estimated population of about 447 million. A union is formed to regulate similar laws throughout, implement laws to ease in business, to ensure free movement of goods and services, movement of capital in the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade. The European Union and United Kingdom Union did the same to ease the trade by removing the trade barriers.
The treaty was made after the demise of Hitler who has shaken the whole kingdom. This treaty was made to establish peace all around. The main reason was to ensure a peaceful and healthy environment. Along with, to ensure that people feel ease in trade, to have more employment opportunities for the citizens of both unions. There was no need to do formalities and carry documentation for legal and other requirements. To travel between the European Union and the United Kingdom Union is as easy as travelling between two neighbouring states of any other country. The impact of this treaty is not only positive. Because there is one rule for such a large number of people and at many points of time the people do not agree. At a time, it was decided to give shelter to several refugees in the countries of the union in the proportion of the population of the country. This decision made the normal people angry and they start opposing the treaty and start demanding Brexit.
When votes for Brexit are conducted, it has an immediate impact on the UK economy. According to a study of 2018, it has revealed that there is fall in GDP by 2.5%, the decline in investment by 6%, increase in unemployment by 1.5% and fall in per capita income by 1%. While the voting held, there were many questions arose around. When the voting conducted, the overall majority of votes were in the favour of Brexit but when we analyse the separate results of each country forming the United Kingdom, we find something strange. In Scotland, the overall votes were in against the Brexit because there the citizens were against the Brexit. Although, many questions arise about the nationalism of the people of Scotland. Whether they were nationalism that they want independent Scotland or they were anti-nationalism as they were against the UK and wanted to be a part of the European Union. However, the United Kingdom does not accept this.
The impact of this Brexit cannot be estimated now; its impact may be the last longing. However, some of the impacts can be estimated and consequences can be figured out. The most suffering section because of this Brexit is common people. There are many people of the UK earning their livelihood from Europe and vice versa. Along with there will be were many formalities and other trade barriers between both nations as they are the significant trade partners for various products. It will increase the new probabilities and possibilities of difficulties for both the unions.
Still, the treaty was finalised, the terms and conditions are vague and not clear. The negotiation still needs to be clear. Aside from trade, many other aspects of the future UK-EU relationship will also need to be decided. For example, law enforcement, data sharing and security, aviation standard and safety, accessing fishing waters, the supply of electricity and gas, licensing and regulation of medicines, etc. Prime Minister Boris Johnson insists the transition period will not be extended, but the European Commission has warned that the timetable will be extremely challenging.
Brexit has also inspired many creative works such as murals, sculptures, novels, plays, movies and video games. The response of British artists and writers to Brexit has in general been negative, reflected a reported overwhelming percentage of people involved in Britain’s creative industries voting against leaving the European Union.
By leaving the EU, the UK would leave the European Common Aviation Area (ECAA), a single market in commercial air travel, but could negotiate several different future relationships with the EU. UK airlines would still have permission to operate within the EU with no restrictions, and vice-versa. The UK government seeks continued participation in the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The UK has its air service agreements with 111 countries, which permit flights to-and-from the country, and further 17 countries through its EU membership. These have since been replaced. Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks. New ferry departures between the Republic of Ireland and the European mainland have been established.
Concerns have been raised that Brexit might create security problems for the UK, particularly in law enforcement and counter-terrorism where the UK could use the EU’s database in individuals crossing the British borders.
Therefore, the last longing of this Brexit cannot be estimated now. Its sheets will be open up in the coming years.